Teacher Preparation and Practices of Writing 12
that the participants taught at. Furthermore, Gilbert and Graham (2010) argue that teachers’ self-
efficacy for teaching writing predicts their writing practices that they will implement in the
classroom. Gilbert and Graham claim that when teachers had negative experiences with writing
in their past, they tend to have low confidence in teaching writing to students. Also, in a study
conducted by Grisham and Wolsey (2011) teacher candidates’ self-efficacy in teaching writing
increased after having positive experiences with teaching writing in their student teaching
placements. In a similar study by Pella (2011) teachers were able to discuss their view of writing
pedagogy through a professional learning community and were looking to change their
perceptions of self-efficacy in writing instruction. A participant indicated that through the
knowledge she obtained in the professional learning community she felt more confident in
setting goals for the future. Al-Bataineh et al.’s study also led to teachers discussing how they
obtained knowledge about writing by providing examples in three different ways. First,
examples were provided about ones experiences with writing from their home environment.
Second several references were made about teachers’ K-12 schooling experiences and finally
their experiences that they had in their teacher education programs were also shared. These
themes were also present throughout several other studies that were conducted.
Similar studies to Al- Bataineh et al. (2010) also questioned, surveyed, or interviewed
teachers about their literacy histories. According to Norman and Spencer (2005), the literacy
histories that pre-service teachers experience influence their pedagogical decisions that they will
make in the classroom as well as how they will learn writing in their teacher education programs.
In a study by Mathers, Benson and Newton (2007), participants responded that the influences of
parents and siblings were responsible for their success in writing. Family members were often
credited for helping participants learn how to write in other studies as well. For example, family