Training and Development (T & D): Introduction and Overview
Goldstein I. L. & Ford K. (2002) Training in Organizations: Needs assessment,
Development and Evaluation (4
Edn.). Belmont: Wadsworth.
Aims and objectives
• Relate concepts and principles from the psychology of training and development
to real occupational issues in order to make a constructive contribution to
• Recognize the psychological assumptions made in making training and
development decisions and to manage these assumptions appropriately.
• Appreciate the contextual factors of real organisations and work situations that
affect decisions concerning the application of training and development concepts.
• Provide a basis for making useful training interventions within organisations and
evaluating such interventions.
In doing these things, this learning material aims to enable students to develop
appropriate understanding of using occupational psychology within organisations with
respect to issues of training and development.
Training and development play an important role in the effectiveness of organisations
and to the experiences of people in work. Training has implications for productivity,
health and safety at work and personal development. All organisations employing
people need to train and develop their staff.
Most organisations are cognisant of this
requirement and invest effort and other resources in training and development. Such
investment can take the form of employing specialist training and development staff and
paying salaries to staff undergoing training and development. Investment in training and
development entails obtaining and maintaining space and equipment. It also means that
operational personnel, employed in the organisation’s main business functions, such as
production, maintenance, sales, marketing and management support, must also direct
their attention and effort from time to time towards supporting training development
and delivery. This means they are required to give less attention to activities that are
obviously more productive in terms of the organisation’s main business. However,
investment in training and development is generally regarded as good management
practice to maintain appropriate expertise now and in the future.